Monday, May 25, 2020

What Is the Worlds Strongest Superacid

You may be thinking the acid in the alien blood in the popular movie is pretty far-fetched, but the truth is, theres is an acid that is even more corrosive! Learn about the words strongest superacid: fluoroantimonic acid.   Strongest Superacid The worlds strongest superacid is fluoroantimonic acid, HSbF6. It is formed by mixing hydrogen fluoride (HF) and antimony pentafluoride (SbF5). Various mixtures produce the superacid, but mixing equal ratios of the two acids produces the strongest superacid known to man. Properties of Fluoroantimonic Acid Superacid Rapidly and explosively decomposes upon contact with water. Because of this property, fluoroantimonic acid cannot be used in aqueous solution. It is only used in a solution of hydrofluoric acid.Evolves highly toxic vapors. As the temperature is increased, fluoroantimonic acid decomposes and generates hydrogen fluoride gas (hydrofluoric acid).Fluoroantimonic acid is 2Ãâ€"1019 (20 quintillion) times stronger than 100% sulfuric acid. Fluoroantimonic acid has a H0 (Hammett acidity function) value of -31.3.Dissolves glass and many other materials and protonates nearly all organic compounds (such as everything in your body). This acid is stores in PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) containers. What Is It Used For? If its so toxic and dangerous, why would anyone want to have fluoroantimonic acid? The answer lies in its extreme properties. Fluoroantimonic acid is used in chemical engineering and organic chemistry to protonate organic compounds, regardless of their solvent. For example, the acid can be used to remove H2 from isobutane and methane from neopentane. It is used as a catalyst for alkylations and acylations in petrochemistry. Superacids in general are used to synthesize and characterize carbocations. Reaction Between Hydrofluoric Acid and Antimony Pentafluoride The reaction between hydrogen fluoride and antimony pentrafluoride that forms fluoroantimonic acid is exothermic. HF SbF5 → H SbF6- The hydrogen ion (proton) attaches to the fluorine via a very weak dipolar bond. The weak bond accounts for the extreme acidity of fluoroantimonic acid, allowing the proton to jump between anion clusters. What Make Fluoroantimonic Acid a Superacid? A superacid is any acid that is stronger than pure sulfuric acid, H2SO4. By stronger, it means a superacid donates more protons or hydrogen ions in water or has a Hammet acidity function H0 lower than -12. The Hammet acidity function for fluorantimonic acid is H0 -28. Other Superacids Other superacids include the carborane superacids [e.g.,  H(CHB11Cl11)] and fluorosulfuric acid (HFSO3). The carborane superacids may be considered the worlds strongest solo acid, as fluoroantimonic acid is actually a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and antimony pentafluoride. Carborane has a pH value of -18. Unlike fluorosulfuric acid and fluoroantimonic acid, the carborane acids are so noncorrosive that they may be handled with bare skin. Teflon, the non-stick coating often found on cookware, may contain carborante. The carborane acids are also relatively uncommon, so its unlikely a chemistry student would encounter one of them. Strongest Superacid Key Takeaways A superacid has an acidity greater than that of pure sulfuric acid.The worlds strongest superacid is fluoroantimonic acid.Fluoroantimonic acid is a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and antimony pentafluoride.The carbonane superacids are the strongest solo acids. Sources Hall NF, Conant JB (1927). A Study of Superacid Solutions. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 49 (12): 3062ndash, 70. doi:10.1021/ja01411a010Herlem, Michel (1977). Are reactions in superacid media due to protons or to powerful oxidising species such as SO3 or SbF5?. Pure and Applied Chemistry. 49: 107–113. doi:10.1351/pac197749010107

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Problem with Todays Youth Language Essay - 800 Words

Have you noticed something wrong with the vocabulary that the young people of the modern world have been using? If not, I suggest you take another look. The words and sentence structure has become lazy and lost its rightful rank of importance, falling into the youths’ view of boring and tedious. The vast amount of words are slowing decaying to the last of their lives, soon to be un- or misused by the masses, some even becoming extinct out of malpractice or ignorance of the current existence. Sadly, definitions have even been altered due to being wrongly used in everyday speak, mainly misused by the youth of today. I will talk about how some or most young adults speak, how it can carry into adulthood, the cons of using the language, ways to†¦show more content†¦Posture, dressing nicely or appropriately, speaking in a calm and collected voice, and keeping visible grooming can improve the visual aspects of being a professional or an adult in a good position. There are many downsides to using informal and improper language in inappropriate situations. Some are: 1. being seen as unprofessional 2. being denied something you were applying for, such as a job position 3. not being respected as you should 4. and finally, possibly being forcibly removed from a location. These are just a few major of many negative reactions to an adult speaking with underdeveloped speech skills can have if they do not try to correct themselves. There is a myriad of ways to help teens and young children develop useful language and social skills. Schools, middle and elementary, can provide classes that deal with teaching children and teens about how to portray themselves in the best light for each situation. It would be similar to Professional Communications, which teaches ways to write and to give speeches in front of an audience, including persuasive techniques. The Uses and Complexity of Argument Structures in Expert and Student Persuasive Writing by Joanna Crammond explains a study done by the author. It studies the complexities of sentence structure and word usage of kids in grades 6, 8, and 10, and how they differ from that of experts in persuasive writing. As a student who has taken this class, it can be very pressuring to go in front of 30Show MoreRelated Youth Violence Essay1223 Words   |  5 Pages Youth Violence   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Youth violence is an escalating problem in American society today. There are many different factors that can be blamed for this problem. During the last decade of the twentieth century people began searching for answers to this dilemma which is haunting America. Many tragic school shootings have taken place within the last decade that have gained the attention of the public. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Important Effects of Theories, Systems, and Paradigms...

Psychology is the study of the way people think and behave. The field of psychology has a number of subdisciplines devoted to the study of the different levels and contexts of human thought and behavior that includes theories, systems, and paradigms. Theories, systems, and paradigms have had an important effect on psychology. A theory is a plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles offered to explain phenomena. A theory can also be explained as an abstract thought or speculation. There are many different theories of abnormality and treatment. These approaches include the psychoanalytic, neo-Freudian, gestalt, cognitive behavior therapy, humanistic psychology, and transactional analysis. Theories†¦show more content†¦The approach of intellectual history describes the sociocultural context of theoretical systems and the future of idea-systems on the works of subsequent theorists. The schools of social thought approach organizes the stud y of theory in terms of groups of theorists who share similar assumptions and approaches to the study of human behavior. In American psychology, systems and theories historically have been very closely associated. A system of psychology may be defined as an interpretation of data and theories with special assumptions (postulates), definitions, and methodological biases (Marx and Hillix, 1979, p. 490). The key word in this definition is the last one, biases, because in essence a system represents a predisposition toward the selection of problems, methods, observations, and interpretations. The systems that have been most influential in American psychology are generally agreed to be structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, Gestalt psychology, and psychoanalysis. Sets of interacting units with relationships among them form these systems. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Regulating Natural Monopolies

Question: Discuss about theRegulating Natural Monopolies. Answer: Introduction In this paper, the researcher seeks to investigate and present a detailed explication behind the rationale for governments to wish to establish the price that natural monopolies charge at the level whereby the demand curve (D=AR=P) intersects the average total cost curve (ATC). Understanding Natural Monopolies Government Regulation The main challenge with monopolies is that when they are left uncontrolled by the government, they will most probably decide to undertake production at an output level that is far lower and offer products at prices that are extremely higher compared to those from virtuously competitive sector (Berg Tschirhart, 2010). A natural monopoly shall produce at point at which the price charged is above he MC, showcasing resources under-allocation towards commodities. The monopoly limits the output and raise its price and in so doing, he is assured a maximum profit, though at a societal cost of less overall consumer welfare or surplus. Surprisingly, in certain industries, due to vast array of output upon that economies of scale are witnessed, it makes increasing sense sometimes for solely one firm to partake. Those markets remain regarded as natural monopolies and certain instances include cable television, along with natural gas besides other industries which have vast economies of scale (Braeutigam, 2015). Government regulators are trapped in dilemmatic setting in speaking to natural monopolistic businesses like electricity sector. An electricity firm that has a monopoly in a given marketplace shall anchor the price along with output decision on profit maximization law which every unfettered business shall; it shall generate at a point whereby their MR equates their MC. The challenge is for a natural monopoly since MR is below price charged, that implies that maximizing profit output level (whereby MC=MR), MC will be below price: proof of allocative inefficiency that is never sufficient electricity shall be generated and price shall be extremely abnormal for certain customers to acquire. In this manner, the need for government regulation arises. The government concerned with acquiring the right quantity of electricity to the right quantity of the individuals (allocative efficiency) might decide to establish a price ceiling for electricity at a level at which the price equates MC of the firm. This, nevertheless, shall probably be underneath ATC of the firm taking in mind that ATC drops over a vast array of output, a setting that will culminate to losses for a business, and might result into collapse. Therefore, many administrations have established a price ceiling whereby price is equivalent to ATC of a firm, implying a firm shall break even solely earning a normal profit substantially merely sufficient to enable the firm run the business; this is regarded as fair-return price. As show above, government regulation of monopolies is meant to only allow the monopolies to gain the normal profits. It is clear that this can only be achieved at a point whereby administration creates price charged by natural monopolies at a point whereby the demand curve intersects the ATC curve where firms can break even. This will make the monopolies to only obtain the revenues required to cover the monopolys total amount of variable and fixed expenses during a given period of time. The administration might decide to undertake regulation of natural monopoly to safeguard interest of consumers. For instance, monopolies enjoy market power for establishing higher prices unlike competitive markets. The administration have various options to choose from when regulating the monopolies including price capping, barring the monopoly power growth and yardstick competition. Reasons for Government Regulation The government will regulate monopoly to bar excess price from being charged by monopolies. In the absence of administration regulation, natural monopoly might place price beyond. This will culminate into allocative inefficiency hence a drop in consumers welfare. The government also regulate to ensure better service quality. In case a natural monopoly enjoys a power over a given service provision, it might have less incentive to provide good service quality. The administration will thus regulate to make sure that the monopoly firm meet the minimum service standard. The government will also regulate to control the monopsony power. For a monopoly firm, it will be well placed to abuse the buying power of monopsony. For instance, supermarkets might utilize their overriding market location and hence squeezing farmers profit margins. The regulation will also be done to indorse competition. In certain businesses, it is conceivable to promote competition, hence there shall be little sense for regulation by government. The government also regulate due to natural monopolies. Certain sectors are natural monopolies and hence because of huge economies of scale, it will be supremely efficient to only have one firm. Accordingly, there is no need for encouraging competition by the government and hence it is indispensable to regulate firms to bar the exploitation of the power of monopoly. Average Cost Pricing The government uses price capping to regulate the monopolies from charging the high price above that of a competitive market. For example, for freshly privatized industries like gas, water and electricity, the administration has established regulatory agencies including OFGEM (electricity and gas markets), OFWAT (tap water) and ORR (office of rail regulator) in the United States. These bodies undertake to limit the surges in prices. The average cost pricing is helpful in this case. This is the regulatory described as the enforcement of a price point for a particular commodity which equals the entire costs sustained by monopoly providing or producing. Such an approach is used by the government to reduce the flexibility of the monopoly which makes sure that monopoly cannot capture the margins beyond and above what is reasonable (Train, 2011). In this way, the government is able to eliminate the threat that consolidating an industry into one single suppler pose to the free market along with their customers since it limits the manipulation of the price by monopolies through a comprehensive control of the supply. In this sense, the government will minimize monopolization alongside maintenance of competitive equality. Accordingly, the government will ensure that monopolies do not lower that economic output of a given society and hence its wealth by regulating the prices charged by the monopoly to a point whereby demand curve crisscross ATC curve to bar a natural monopoly from profit maximization rather than fair returns or normal profits (Posner, 2014). Price Regulation For a competitive firm, the profit maximization takes place where the MC is equals to price at the market. Nevertheless, because ATC of a natural monopoly drops repeatedly, the MC shall normally be smaller than ATC. This is because the ATC describes average entire costs encompassing vast fixed costs whereas MC is solely additional cost of generating an extra unit. Accordingly, a natural monopoly shall recurrently lose cash in case price charged is restricted to its MC (Loeb Magat, 2014). The government comes into play to dictate the better regulated price which would that which permits the monopoly to alter the price denoted as fair-return price sometimes which equates to the monopolys ATC or the normal profit as show in the diagram below. The above price would permit the natural monopoly to endure as a going concern. Nevertheless, it would fail to incentivize the monopoly firm owners to reduce costs. Therefore, this kind of the government regulation of monopolies could be improved by permitting a natural monopoly to maintain certain profits received by decreasing costs (Gmez-Ibez, 2013). It is acknowledged that not such a price is beneath price charged by monopoly which maximizes profits, which sets the price equivalent to level at which MC=MR Conclusion It is apparent from the deliberation above that certain commodities can be offered at a lower cost by natural monopolies than competing firms. The primary feature of a natural monopoly is that its ATC diminishes continually over any amount demanded by the market. In case the sector has a vast fixed cost, a single firm will offer commodity at a point far lesser cost compared to numerous firms. This is due to the fact that ATC of each firm will be much higher compared to when it is a natural monopoly. Therefore, a natural monopoly will provide a commodity for a lower price in absence of any competition. Certain examples of a natural monopoly encompass the distribution of landline phone, tap water, natural gas and electricity. The government regulation is, therefore, appropriate to make sure that a natural monopoly only charges the fair-return price or normal profit without reducing costs sat a point at which AR curve intersects ATC curve. References Berg, S. V., Tschirhart, J. (2010). Natural monopoly regulation: principles and practice. New York: Cambridge University Press. Braeutigam, R. R. (2015). Optimal policies for natural monopolies. Handbook of industrial organization, 2, 1289-1346. Gmez-Ibez, J. A. (2013). Regulating infrastructure: monopoly, contracts, and discretion. Loeb, M., Magat, W. A. (2014). A decentralized method for utility regulation. the Journal of Law and Economics, 22(2), 399-404. Posner, R. A. (2014). Natural monopoly and its regulation. Stanford Law Review, 548-643. Train, K. E. (2011). Optimal regulation: the economic theory of natural monopoly. MIT Press Books, 1.

Tuesday, April 7, 2020

Final Project Student Survival Guide free essay sample

This school has made earning my college degree convenient and offers many resources. In all of my classes books, appendices, and learning materials are online and easily downloaded to my computer for quick access. Audio files are a useful tool to help me comprehend my reading material. All Of the downloaded materials are also available to download to portable devices so I can take college with me anywhere I go. Another amazing resource is the University Library, which is easily accessible by clicking on the Library tab at the top of the page once I log into my student portal.In the library are many tools that help me to succeed. Among them is the Center for Writing Excellence, or CHEW which supplies resources to help develop written communication skills (University of Phoenix, Ixia College, 201 1). In the CHEW can submit a paper for grammar review in Writing and submit a paper for plagiarism review in the Plagiarism Checker. We will write a custom essay sample on Final Project: Student Survival Guide or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page There are also grammar and writing guides to help me submit a top notch paper with little to no grammatical mistakes.A downloaded tool available in the CHEW is called Riverfront Writer, which opens a Word document properly roommate according to the required PAP (American Psychological Association) guidelines. Also in the Library is The Center for Mathematics Excellence, as well as, student labs and useful links to aid me in gaining my education. Under the Library tab I can find a search box to research all of the publications that Library has to offer as well as links to other databases to further my research. The tutorials offered in the library allow me to fully understand how to use the available resources. Next, we will discuss Academic Honesty. Ixia College has implemented academic honesty leslies to encourage the students intellectual growth, to encourage them to remain honest, and to encourage students to always give credit where credit is due. Ixia Colleges Student Code of Academic Integrity states the many different ways to cheat. Among them is Plagiarism which by definition is the intentional or unintentional representation of anothers words or ideas as ones own in an academic exercise (Center for Writing Excellence, 2011 Plagiarism is dishonorable, dishonest and in some cases criminal.It is stealing and using someone elses intellectual property as my own. The consequences if caught can be severe. I can be given a zero or failing grade for the assignment, be dropped from the course or even be expelled from the institution. A tip to avoid plagiarism is to always include my resources and use proper citations. The Reference and Citation Generator that is available in the library can help with this. Another helpful tool to avoid plagiarism is to submit my papers to the Plagiarism Checker available in the CHEW. The next step to cover is setting and achieving goals.My short term goal is to complete each of my classes successfully one week at a time. By focusing on my studies week by week am able to tackle them easily and not be overwhelmed. I intend to keep using this strategy as I have so far been successful. My long term goals are to complete my Associates Degree and to become employed in a hospital or clinical setting. There are always obstacles in any life goal. The trick is to identify them and overcome them. You can identify obstacles by realizing what and who supports your endeavors and what and who dont and rectify the situation.A strong support group will help you overcome anything that gets in your way. My Ixia degree will be pivotal in me accomplishing my goals. This degree will change my life for the better and I cant wait. Now we will talk about managing time wisely, something that I need to get better at doing. The goal is to balance time between my courses and to focus enough time and energy to both Of them. I have learned to set schedules for myself and set aside time that will only be for schoolwork. Throughout the day I have work, school, and family responsibilities.Setting schedules for your day really does help you accomplish everything you need to. When get up immediately head to the computer and log into my classes, there I check in for attendance and see what I need to accomplish for the day. I go to work, and when home tend to my family and then back to the computer to complete assignments or participate in discussions. I found that I wasted time in front of the TV and was able to find more time for studies when I eliminated frivolities. The best thing to do is prioritize my time and activities and I will be successful. Now lets move onto developing reading comprehension and retention.A valuable process I learned was how to use the USSR (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review). When applying this process to my studies I found that retained information better. Surveying is your pre-reading or scanning for the basics of information that you will need. Questioning is compiling questions related to the topics you just surveyed. You are then ready to Read. The Recite step is repeating information written or out loud to let the information sink in. Next is to Review your notes or highlights (Carter, Bishop, Gravitas, 2007). This process can be beneficial to anyone for reading comprehension and I highly recommend it.The final step is applying personality and learning styles to my studies. Through assignments I discovered that my strongest learning style and intelligence is Verbal-Linguistic, which according to the text is the ability to communicate through language (listening, reading, writing, speaking) (Carter, Bishop, Gravitas, 2007). Feel this learning style is perfect for distance learning environments because can process what I read and write easily and successfully. My weakest intelligence was Naturalistic and decided to study he environment and nature more in order to develop this.

Monday, March 9, 2020

The Augustan Principate essays

The Augustan Principate essays A Period of confusion, unrest, civil strife and violence of all kinds had finally culminated in the emergence of one man as the supreme arbiter of the destinies of the roman world. Octavian was that man. During his triumph in 29B.C, Octavian (later to become Augustus) had returned to Rome a hero after having organized the East. Octavian had held the consulship in 31B.C up until 23B.C. The Augustan principate was the name given to the reformations Augustus had brought to the Republic. These values were in essence applicable to the format of the Empire was run for the next 200 years. What Augustus done most successfully was recognize that he needed to rectify the mistakes that his predecessors had made as well implementing some of their more successful ideas into his plans. The Augustan principate was laid down for the first time in 27 B.C, however Augustus himself rectified it furthermore in 23 B.C and in 18B.C. The individual success of Augustus is plain to see as he survived at the heart of the Empire until his death at an old age. In several ways the reforms under Augustus had directly links to the past, such as the involvement of Augustus with the arts at the time and the emphasis he placed on upholding roman morals. He also held pro-consular power, which had been seen in the past. Although there were links to the past the emphasis of the Augustan principate was the new format that Augustus introduced. The 19th century historian Mommsen argued that the division of provincial responsibility between the Emperor and senate was legitamate; he termed the situation as a diarchy. This was one of the new situations created by the Augustan principate. One thing which was relatively new to Romans was the peace and stability enjoyed under the rule of Augustus. The main emphasis of the reforms were to tie the Emperor closer to the military, how did Augustus do this? He gave new powers to new constitutional positions and gave prece...

Friday, February 21, 2020

RP 3.2 Online Ethical Business project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

RP 3.2 Online Ethical Business project - Essay Example The particular phone is then shipped to the buyer within 1-5 days depending on their location. The business will be aimed at providing services to customers while not infringing on the customer privacy and the Digital Copyright Act (SBA, 2013). The business will therefor comply with all the legal considerations and requirement for an online business. Some of these requirement include the fact that, the business will be duly registered as an online business by the national and the local authorities for the issues of tax remittance. To our customers, we will comply with the customer privacy regulations of not sharing their vital and personal information with any other entity and we will ensure that the customers’ personal information remains personal and private. Just like in every business, we will be faced with a stiff competition in the market. We’re aware of the already existing well established companies that deal do online cell phone retailing. Some of the major players in this market include Amazon, Mobile city online, OLX and others. However, that will not encourage us from operating and having our own market niche and create our customer base. We will involve in thorough advertisement through social media, television and magazines in order to increase our popularity. We will ensure that we collaborate with phone manufacturers so that we be among the first people to sell the newly released phone models. This way, we will be able to attract more clients who are in the category of those who would want to be the first to use such new models (James, 2012). We will then win our customers through this strategy and ensure we sell online high quality phones in order to stay on top of competition. For the start, the business will only be able to serve the clients in the United Kingdom. Here, it will be able to at least meet the cost of delivering the purchased phones to the